The purpose of this interdisciplinary course is to bridge the gap between the various fields that are concerned with the question of physical activity and its implications for health and disease. We intend to bring together sport medicine (covering aspects of nutrition, training, biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology, injury prevention and rehabilitation and mental health) and sport psychology (covering aspects of motivation, emotions, personality, talent) and integrating them with insights obtained from the fields of neurobiology, ethology (which focuses on proximate and ultimate functions of behavior) and psychoneuroimmunology. Sex differences with respect to physiology, psychology and sport performance will be also explored. Experts from different fields will lecture and discuss their scientific works to better understand the psychobiological effects of sport and physical activity. The workshop is addressed to students and researchers in sport sciences (i.e. sport medicine and sport psychology), including PhD and undergraduate students of medical schools, psychology, sport sciences, neurobiology, etc.) as well as professional sports coaches and anyone interested in this interdisciplinary approach.