The present workshop aims to celebrate the 50th course of the International School of Ethology "Danilo Mainardi since its foundation in 1975. Furthermore, 2023 is an important date for the science of ethology as the comparative study of animal and human behavior from an evolutionary perspective. Indeed it is the 50th anniversary of the Nobel Prize award to the three ethologists (K.von Frisch, K.Lorenz and N. Tinbergen) and the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the Italian Society of Ethology (SIE). The purpose of the course “Ethology: Past, Present and Future” is to explore and discuss the impact that ethology had, has and will have in the future on biological, ecological, psychological and bio-medical disciplines. The course involves lectures by invited speakers, short talks and posters and it is addressed to students, PhDs, Post-docs, young researchers and faculties that will have the opportunity to contribute to the discussions with short communications and/or posters.